Piracetam is an effective brain supplement for improving cognitive performance. Centrophenoxine is frequently used as a memory booster that falls into the category of Choline sources.  Centrophenoxine will enhance the effectiveness of Piracetam.

√ Source of Choline to Optimize Memory

√ Prevents Symptoms of Mental Decline

√ Improves Alertness & Concentration

A great value to make your days better and brighter with a dynamic combination for your brain regimen.


Choline is an important part of your memory stack and should be taken with Piracetam. If you have Piracetam in your daily brain health regimen, then Centrophenoxine is an excellent additional supplement to your daily routine. Centrophenoxine will enhance the effectiveness of Piracetam and the two together give optimum results for your memory boost and enhanced processing power.


Piracetam is a nootropic (a term which comes from a Greek word meaning acting on the mind.) that is commonly reported to be a stimulant to the Central Nervous System and a booster of intelligence with no known toxicity or addictive properties. People who have used the product often describe the sensation as waking up the brain.


Piracetam enhances memory and cognitive performance, it slows down the aging process on the brain, increases blood flow and oxygen into the brain, aids in the recovery after a stroke and improves Alzheimer’s, Down syndrome, senile dementia and dyslexia. Piracetam a derivative of GABA, is one of the few racetams which can inhibit brain damage caused by a variety of factors including a lack of oxygen to the brain and even excessive alcohol consumption.

In 1964 Dr Corneliu Giurgea led the Belgian pharmaceutical company UCB to first synthesize Piracetam and it was he who first coined the phrase or term Nootropic drug – a substance which enhances mental performance. Nootropil was the first brand name of Piracetam and was launched clinically in the early 1970’s.

Dr Giurgea felt that nootropics should have some of the following characteristics:

Memory and learning enhancement; In conditions which usually disrupt learning behaviors or memories like hypoxia (oxygen starved brain) they should enhance this resistance; Brain protection against various physical or chemical injuries; The lack of the usual effects common to other psychotropic drugs like sedation; Have very few side effects and extremely low toxicity. Over the last 4 decades and mainly in Europe, Piracetam has been used experimentally or clinically to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions, some of which are covered below.

Piracetam has been used successfully to treat alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It has brought improvement, or slowed deterioration in senile dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and after a stroke improved recovery from speech impairment. For those suffering with decreased brain blood flow or cerebral ischaemia, Piracetam has restored some limb function, speech and a state of consciousness. For elderly psychiatric patients with cerebral impairment Piracetam improved IQ, alertness and co-operation.

With Piracetam dyslexic children have better reading comprehension, accuracy of reading, writing, spelling and an increased memory and verbal learning.

For those experiencing middle-aged forgetfulness to the elderly suffering from age related memory impairment Piracetam has improved mental performance, memory and recall. Piracetam reversed the typical EEG slowing associated with normal human aging whilst at the same time increasing vigilance, attention and memory.

Following head injuries, comatose or post-concussional patients had a reduction in the severity of major symptoms and an improved state of consciousness with Piracetam.

It has been used successfully to treat motion sickness and vertigo.

With severe muscle spasms (Myoclonus) or vasospasm’s in the hands or feet (Raynaud’s syndrome) Piracetam has proved to be one the best products for treatment.

Both clinically and experimentally Piracetam has been used to inhibit sickle cell anemia.

Piracetam has improved Parkinson’s disease, and can work synergistically with standard L-dopa treatment.

One of the major key points to note with Piracetam is its amazing lack of toxicity. Clinical toxicity studies have failed to find a lethal dose (LD50) of Piracetam and one conclusion stated that Piracetam is virtually non-toxic and is therefore considered to be one of the safest products ever developed.

Piracetam has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to prevent or reverse the toxic action of an array of chemicals and conditions. It was discovered that after one year feeding alcohol to rats the formation of lipofuscin (an age-related waste pigment) in brain cells was significantly increased. After high doses of Piracetam were given to the alcohol-fed rats their lipofuscin levels significantly reduced.

In a clinical experiment lasting 3 weeks, rats were given Hexachlorophene (HCP), a toxic chemical that induces edema, membrane damage and increases the sodium whilst decreasing the potassium levels in brain cells. The HCP seriously disrupted the rats’ ability to navigate a horizontal ladder without frequently falling off the rungs. After the introduction of Piracetam the fall rate reduced by 75%. Piracetam was also found to increase the survival rate of rats subjected to severe hypoxia (low oxygen levels in the brain) and also proved to reverse the induced amnesia and learning problems plus speeded up the post hypoxic recovery time. In humans, when a single 2400mg dose of Piracetam was administered and tested in an environment equal to 5300m./17,000 ft. altitude, eye movement reflexes were enhanced and the breathing rate and choice reaction time were reduced.

Neuroscientists in the 1980’s discovered that brain cholinergic neural networks are intimately involved in memory and learning. They also discovered that the structure and function of the cholinergic nerves degenerate in brain aging and in dementias such as Alzheimer’s, impairing both the ability of memory and of learning.

During this same period evidence began to show that Piracetam works in part through a multimodal cholinergic activity. When combining Piracetam with either lecithin or choline studies in both aged rats and humans proved to radically enhance learning ability in both plus significant improvement in memory in Alzheimer’s patients. Yet giving choline or lecithin alone provided little or no benefit, while Piracetam alone at least provided some benefit.

Research has also shown that Piracetam increases high-affinity choline uptake (HACU), a process which forms acetylcholine (ACh) through the cholinergic nerve endings. In another rat experiment using a drug which blocks ACH receptors learning was prevented and glucose utilization was reduced. But when pre-treated with Piracetam learning was normal as was the glucose-energy metabolism.

In normal aging humans a decline occurs in the cortex acetylcholine receptors. The same happens in aged mice with receptors becoming inactive but with oral treatment of a high dose of Piracetam the activity of the ACh cortex nerves were partially restored.

ACh and Glutamate (GLU) are two of the most central activating neurotransmitters facilitating alertness, focus, attention, memory and learning. As Piracetam improves memory and mental performance its effects on ACh/GLU neurotransmission must be presumed. Another interesting point to note is that although Piracetam is usually reported to have little to no side effects, on the rare occasion side effects including anxiety, insomnia, agitation, irritability and tremor are identical to the symptoms of excessive ACh/GLU neuroactivity. Consult with your medical professional before taking.

Piracetam has shown in the numerous animal and human studies that it has a diverse range of neurological and psychological effects but it is not considered to be a direct activator or inhibitor of the synaptic action of most neurotransmitters. Findings indicated that Piracetam and other similar nootropics in fact enhance neuronal excitability [electrical activity] within specific neuronal pathways exerting their effect in the cell membrane of all excitable cells. Therefore the result of their action is an increase in general neuronal sensitivity towards stimulation thus optimizing the functional state of the brain.

Various studies have found that Piracetam enhances brain energy levels especially under deficit conditions. ATP is Energy and it is essential to the brain’s very survival. The brain uses 15-20% of the body’s total ATP production. Created out of glucose and oxygen brain cells have to produce all their own ATP. Studies of cerebral blood flow, oxygen uptake and glucose utilization have shown that brain carbohydrate metabolism is impaired in a variety of dementias and that the degree in the reduction of brain carbohydrate metabolism correlates to the severity of the dementia. A 1987 study concluded that with Piracetam there was a 22% increase in whole brain glucose metabolism.

In humans and animals the cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres – the left and right. Generally the left hemisphere (which controls the right side of the body) is the dominant hemisphere tending to be logical, analytical, linguistic and sequential in its information processing, while the right will be intuitive, picture-oriented and simultaneous in its information processing. Most favour one side over the other with the dominant hemisphere showing more electrical activity and even though the two sides are linked by nerve fibres, it seems that they are separated. Part of the definition of a nootropic is to facilitate inter cerebral information transfer between the two hemispheres and research has shown Piracetam to do so.

Even at long term high doses Piracetam is regularly recognized as being devoid of negative side effects. In a study on 225 dyslexic children it was noted that piracetam was well tolerated, with no serious adverse clinical or laboratory effects reported. There are so many clinical studies which share and draw the same conclusion, Piracetam is incredibly well tolerated and without side effects.

Yet symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headache, agitation, nervousness and tremor (as noted above in the section on glutamate) can occur for some who are unusually sensitive to Piracetam. Reduce dosage to alleviate this over stimulation or taking magnesium supplements (300-500mg/day) can reduce neural activity. Those highly sensitive to caffeine or MSG should be cautious as should anyone taking other nootropics such as centrophenoxine, idebenone, vinpocetine or deprenyl as the overall synergistic effect could lead to over stimulation. To enhance the brain energizing effects of Piracetam taking B complex vitamins, NADH, lipoic acid, CoQ10 or idebenone and magnesium could prove to be beneficial.

Consult with your medical professional before taking.

In clinical literature dosages of Piracetam vary but generally it is taken 3-4 times daily because of it relatively short half life. 1.6 gm, 3 times daily, or 1.2 gm 3-4 times daily is a fairly typical dosage, but for some a noticeable improvement in memory and cognition was gained from just 1.2 gm twice daily.

What is Centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine is made of two biochemicals, parachlorophenoxyacetate (pCPA), which is a plant-hormone resembling compound called an auxin and dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) a natural substance found in the brain. For over 40 years Centrophenoxine has been used and studied for the treatment of Alzheimer’s and Senile Dementia’s and is also one of the most popular brain-energizing, anti-aging products. Do not consider this product until you have consulted with a medical professional. 

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In the Central Nervous System, Centrophenoxine increases levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and enhances neuronal glucose (the main fuel for the brain) and oxygen uptake which indicate increased brain energy production. Centrophenoxine also increases neuronal RNA (derived from DNA) which tell neurons to repair cell damage and create proteins to encode memory. Lipofuscin is accumulated during our lifetime due to poor cell health and is basically biochemical garbage. When large deposits form around cells, the function becomes impaired thus causing a drop of RNA and protein production as we age. Centrophenoxine is excellent at reducing and even removing lipofuscin. Low lipofuscin levels usually mean healthy cellular function and high levels poor.

During a study of elderly but healthy individuals, who were suffering with intellectual deterioration it was found that after only a few weeks taking Centrophenoxine they increased the storage of new information and their ability to access long term memories combined with increased vigilance and alertness.

Centrophenoxine also called Meclofenoxate but most commonly recognized under its brand name Lucidril, is one of the original anti-aging, neuro-energizing products having been used for over 40 years and studied for approximately 50. It is made from two biochemicals: DMAE and pCPA as mentioned above.

An early discovery found that Centrophenoxine effectively reduces lipofuscin levels. Lipofuscin is a fine granular yellow brown pigment, the remains or garbage accumulated over a lifetime. Considered one of the aging pigments, lipofuscin is found in most of our organs cells. The more lipofuscin in the cells, the less functional they become to a point where the cells may die. Animal and human studies have concluded that low lipofuscin levels correlates with healthy cellular function and high the opposite. Centrophenoxine has shown to be very efficient in removing this garbage.

In aged animals with high lipofuscin levels experiments showed that centrophenoxine considerable improved their memory and learning abilities.

DMAE is the major component in Centrophenoxine and DMAE, when added to the correct methyl group, creates choline which in turn helps to make valuable biochemicals like acetylcholine. When oxidized choline can make betaine which is important in ridding homocysteine – a toxic risk factor in heart disease. Choline levels are also considered to be a contributing factor in Alzheimer’s Disease. Choline is found naturally in certain foods such as liver, meat and eggs.

Those lacking in these natural sources of choline could chose a choline supplement but most of these are broken down by the gut. This is not the case with the DMAE in Centrophenoxine, leaving the liver to convert it to as much choline as needed. Also, DMAE prevents choline from being irreversibly oxidized to betaine and it passes through the blood brain barrier far more easily. With the help of an enzyme called “CAT”, choline is converted into acetylcholine a neurotransmitter with a responsibility for learning and memory. In Alzheimer’s Disease and aging itself, cholinergic neurons tend to under produce acetylcholine.

Not to be confused with Acetylcholine itself, the popular brain nutrient ALC or Acetyl-L-Carnitine increases CAT activity, thus increasing the production of acetylcholine. It has been found that for optimizing the effect on cognitive enhancement, learning and memory, some use a combination of ALC, Centrophenoxine and Piracetam.

In a study of healthy elderly individuals who were suffering from significant intellectual deterioration, after just a few weeks, Centrophenoxine increased storage of new information into long term memory and increased vigilance and alertness. Centrophenoxine increases brain energy (ATP) production by enhancing neuronal glucose and oxygen uptake. It also increases neuronal RNA and protein production which repair damaged cells and encode memory. This function decreases with age especially when the nucleus around the cells are covered with lipofuscin and as mentioned above, Centrophenoxine reduces the levels of lipofuscin. The other component in Centrophenoxine, pCPA, is similar to plant auxins (hormones) which increase the RNA and protein production in growing plants.

Aging synapses deteriorate in their function but Centrophenoxine has been shown to increase the repair of the synapses that connect nerve cells to each other. So to conclude, due to the combination of the plant hormone like compound pCPA along with DMAE, Centrophenoxine could be best described as “the ultimate DMAE”.

Centrophenoxine – the dosages

As with all products, always seek professional medical guidance before using. Caution is necessary and Centrophenoxine is a powerful enhancer of brain and peripheral nervous system acetylcholine levels. Excessive levels of acetylcholine can cause problems such as headaches, neck, jaw and shoulder muscle tension, insomnia, irritability, agitation and restlessness.

If any of these occur, simply discontinue Centrophenoxine for a few days and then try a reduced dosage. Discuss with your medical practitioner. Also, those with major depression, mania, seizure disorders or Parkinson’s Disease should avoid Centrophenoxine, as too much acetylcholine may worsen these conditions. Pregnant women should avoid Centrophenoxine.

Elderly people with significant intellectual decline may chose 3 to 6 Centrophenoxine tablets (250mg) per day taken preferably with breakfast and lunch, in order to avoid insomnia. For the non-elderly wishing to utilize the brain boosting benefits of Centrophenoxine, perhaps only 1 or 2 Centrophenoxine tablets (250mg each) daily with breakfast or lunch. Excessive acetylcholine levels can accumulate virtually un-noticed so it is advisable to miss a couple of days each week. Check with your medical professional.



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